Our Blog

Intestinal Biopsies Beyond Histological Diagnosis: Ex-vivo Culturing and Precision Cut Slices for Precision Pharmacology

Intestine: Overview, Histology and Pathology 

The intestine is the largest part of the alimentary canal, which is part of the gastrointestinal tract (also called ‘gut’) that, with accessory glands, form the digestive system. The intestine is divided in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and large intestine (cecum, colon, rectus, and anus). The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption occurs; the large intestine completes the absorption of nutrients and water, synthesise certain vitamins, produce faeces, and excrete the substances eliminated from the body.

The intestinal histology, including the histology of small and large intestine, is described in figure 1.


The full content has been moved to our new website. Get full access there.



[1]           C. A. Richmond and D. T. Breault, “Move Over Caco-2 Cells: Human-Induced Organoids Meet Gut-on-a-Chip,” Cmgh, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 634–635, 2018.

[2]           J. Z. Ou, C. K. Yao, A. Rotbart, J. G. Muir, P. R. Gibson, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Human intestinal gas measurement systems: In vitro fermentation and gas capsules,” Trends Biotechnol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 208–213, 2015.

[3]           M. D. Levitt and J. H. Bond, “Volume, composition, and source of intestinal gas.,” Gastroenterology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 921–929, 1970

[4]           K. Kalantar-Zadeh et al., “Intestinal Gas Capsules: A Proof-of-Concept Demonstration,” Gastroenterology, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 37–39, 2016.

[5]           S. Husby et al., “European society for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition guidelines for the diagnosis of coeliac disease,” J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 136–160, 2012.

[6]           A. S. Mee, M. Burke, A. G. Vallon, J. Newman, and P. B. Cotton, “Small bowel biopsy for malabsorption: Comparison of the diagnostic adequacy of endoscopic forceps and capsule biopsy specimens,” Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed)., vol. 291, no. 6498, pp. 769–772, 1985.

[7]           M. Torabi et al., “We are IntechOpen , the world ’ s leading publisher of Open Access books Built by scientists , for scientists TOP 1 %,” Intech, vol. i, no. tourism, p. 13, 2016.

[8]           A. Prior, A. M. Lessells, and P. J. Whorwell, “Is biopsy necessary if colonoscopy is normal?,” Dig. Dis. Sci., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 673–676, 1987.

[9]           R. J. Shah, C. Fenoglio-Preiser, B. L. Bleau, and R. A. Giannella, “Usefulness of colonoscopy with biopsy in the evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhea,” Am. J. Gastroenterol., vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1091–1095, 2001.

[10]        R. Kirsch et al., “Systemic mastocytosis involving the gastrointestinal tract: Clinicopathologic and molecular study of five cases,” Mod. Pathol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1508–1516, Dec. 2008.

[11]        R. M. Feakins, “Inflammatory bowel disease biopsies: Updated British Society of Gastroenterology reporting guidelines,” J. Clin. Pathol., vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 1005–1026, 2013.

[12]        F. D. M. Van Schaik et al., “Role of immunohistochemical markers in predicting progression of dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 480–488, 2012.

[13]        G. Hajiyeva and S. Ngamruengphong, “Endoscopic techniques for full thickness intestinal biopsy,” Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 295–300, 2018.

[14]        I. de Waziers, P. H. Cugnenc, C. S. Yang, J. P. Leroux, and P. H. Beaune, “Cytochrome P 450 isoenzymes, epoxide hydrolase and glutathione transferases in rat and human hepatic and extrahepatic tissues.,” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 253, no. 1, 1990.

[15]        P. M. Van Midwoud, M. T. Merema, E. Verpoorte, and G. M. M. Groothuis, “A microfluidic approach for in vitro assessment of interorgan interactions in drug metabolism using intestinal and liver slices,” Lab Chip, vol. 10, no. 20, pp. 2778–2786, 2010.

[16]        L. A. Schwerdtfeger, N. J. Nealon, E. P. Ryan, and S. A. Tobet, “Human colon function ex vivo: Dependence on oxygen and sensitivity to antibiotic,” PLoS One, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1–17, 2019.

[17]        L. Albenberg et al., “Correlation between intraluminal oxygen gradient and radial partitioning of intestinal microbiota,” Gastroenterology, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 1055-1063.e8, 2014.

[18]        J. Z. H. von Martels et al., “The role of gut microbiota in health and disease: In vitro modeling of host-microbe interactions at the aerobe-anaerobe interphase of the human gut,” Anaerobe, vol. 44, pp. 3–12, 2017.


Discover the CubiX

Emulating human cell & tissue physiology


Tags: , , ,

This is a unique website which will require a more modern browser to work! Please upgrade today!