Why a heart on a chip?
The heart is the central element of the cardiovascular system. If it is dysfunctional, others organs will not receive enough oxygen. Some pharmaceuticals induced cardiac rhythm impairment, which is a major cause of market withdrawal (around 1/3 of total withdrawal, e.g: Mediator (benfluorex) scandal in France). Currently used models (cell line or animal testing) are not predictive enough of what is observed in humans. Moreover, heart diseases are responsible for 25% of the overall number of death in the USA, meaning that heart issues are a real public health concern.
FUN FACT: Benfluorex has been withdrawn of the French market in November 2009 because of a higher risk (4 times) to develop a valvulopathy. In the whole 2009 year, only 2 pharmaceuticals have been withdrawn from the market and in 2010 (one year after the benfluorex scandal), 14 drugs have been withdrawn from the French market, mainly due to heart adverse effect.
Fig 1: Heart Anatomy
The sum of the next-generation 3D cells culture technologies.
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1: Lab Chip. 2011 Dec 21;11(24):4165-73. doi: 10.1039/c1lc20557a. Epub 2011 Nov 10. Ensembles of engineered cardiac tissues for physiological and pharmacological study: heart on chip. Grosberg A1, Alford PW, McCain ML, Parker KK
2: Anal Chem. 2010 Sep 15;82(18):7581-7. doi: 10.1021/ac1012893. Microfluidic cardiac cell culture model (μCCCM). Giridharan GA1, Nguyen MD, Estrada R, Parichehreh V, Hamid T, Ismahil MA, Prabhu SD, Sethu P
3: Sci Rep. 2015 Mar 9;5:8883. doi: 10.1038/srep08883. Human iPSC-based cardiac microphysiological system for drug screening applications. Mathur A1, Loskill P1, Shao K2, Huebsch N3, Hong S2, Marcus SG2, Marks N2, Mandegar M3, Conklin BR3, Lee LP4, Healy KE
4: Fang Qian, Chao Huang, Yi-Dong Lin, Anna N. Ivanovskaya, Thomas J. O’Hara, Ross H. Booth, Cameron J. Creek, Heather A. Enright, David A. Soscia, Anna M. Belle, Ronglih Liao, Felice C. Lightstone, Kristen S. Kulp, Elizabeth K. Wheeler. Simultaneous electrical recording of cardiac electrophysiology and contraction on chip. Lab Chip, 2017
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